Decades ago when the first discussions started globally, the Ballast Water Convention (BWC) entered into force on 8th September 2017. The issue was initially discussed within the World Health Organization. Following the news that the Cholera Bacteria was introduced in South-America by ships' ballast tanks. Subsequently, many countries and stakeholders have worked thoroughly within the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to regulate the introduction of invasive species from ships' ballast water.
After many years of intensive land-based testing of ballast water treatment systems (BWTS) world-wide, they will now actually be applied in practice. Much has been speculated about the - possible- difficulties with BWTS, but the real test will occur as a growing number of BWTS will be applied in practice the forthcoming months and years.
A real bottleneck is that the approximately 2,000 ships that have installed BWTS contain a valuable ‘cargo’ of information that is crucial. Experience data that is crucial for the improvement of the BWC in general, and the Code for approval of ballast water management systems (most likely becoming the mandatory BWMS Code, fomerly G8 Guidelines). The crucial question appears to be:
How do all maritime stakeholders create a reliable and productive 'testing environment' to further improve the BWC and its further implementation?'
Over the last fifteen years, MEA-nl and its team members have been testing many BWTS. During these years, we have continuously been involved in the regulatory process to create both effective and workable BWC and accompanying guidelines. Besides this, MEA-nl’s approach is to test with ambient water and sediment to the greatest extent possible. We are convinced that by doing this, we offer the ultimate challenge to test BWTS with the required land-based and ship-board tests.
The actual approach for these tests varies across the globe. But, to summarize, all tests that are required in regulations take place under conditioned circumstances. Testing BWTS in full operation on-board must be regarded as a fulfillment of the total test cycle. A crucial ‘chain’ in the continuous improvement of R&D of technologies, and, improvement of regulations.
Here is how MEA-nl defines its own role in on-board testing in years to come:
1.) On-board experience is necessary 'fuel for improvement' for BWTS manufacturers
Without information about the actual sea areas where the systems operate, experiences with BWTS long-term operation, and crew experiences, BWTS manufactures and ship-owners will be cut off from necessary improvement. In an intense process between ship owners, BWTS manufacturers and test facilities, such as MEA-nl, continuous technical and operational improvement could and should take place.
2.) Practical biological efficacy verification is possible… and achievable
Testing biological efficacy is not rocket science, and it is economically feasible. Naturally, such verification tests can be kept confidential between the parties involved to ensure an effective and result-driven approach. MEA-nl aims to play its role in this challenge.
3.) Test facilities' experience will assist ship owners to choose effective approach
Nearly every BWTS contains a first filtration step and a subsequent after treatment. For example, both the conditions of the point of intake (amount of sediment and organic matter) and the filtration step determine the efficacy of the after treatment to a great extent. It has already become clear that such processes can potentially complicate the total BWTS effectiveness.MEA-nl’s approach and objective is to assist ship-owners to choose an effective approach. In practice, this may comprise of:
Whether such tests and results are shared for the purpose of the Experience Building Phase of the Convention, is of course up to manufacturers and ship-owners.
Last MEPC 71, it was agreed to provide ship operators more time to install BWTS. Based on the applying IOPP dry dock intervals, ship owners can choose how to implement the mandatory BWTS and D2 standard on-board. Some useful summaries were provided by several maritime stakeholders. They can be downloaded here and here.
MEA-nl is located at the crossroads of three salinities of ambient water. With the abundance of natural circumstances that the Wadden Sea, Lake IJssel and North Sea offers. To fully present these favorable and fascinating circumstances, images ‘speak louder than words’. A short introduction movie to illustrate our work and location in Den Oever. It only takes 2 minutes to take this visual trip to our impressive location, in the upper Northen part of the Netherlands. Start your trip and introduction here.
With the BWC implemtation forthcoming, we have been involved in two articles about our work, track record and vision of succesful BWC implementation.
Our article (english introduction, full article only in Dutch) for the national magazine 'SWZ Maritime' can be downloaded here
Our contribution for the magazine of the recent 'Flora and Visserij Dagen' in Den Oever in August can be downloaded here
The Ballast Water Conference that was organised on the 24th of April by Riviera in the Mövenpick Hotel in Amsterdam was attended by approximately 100 visitors. Several shipping companies participated, and MEA-nl had a role as co-sponsor as well as presenter. Subsequently, Lloyd’s Register (LR) included the topic of ballast water in three well attended technical seminars that took place in Antwerp (Belgium) and Haren and Rotterdam (The Netherlands).
The entry into force of the Ballast Water Convention (BWC) is approaching quickly. On the 8th of September 2017, all ships world-wide are required to establish measures for ballast water management.
For existing ships, temporary measures have been arranged for the BWC application. Postponement of the obligation use Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) can apply to five years after entry into force date at the latest. Ships with such a postponement are temporarily allowed to perform Ballast Water Exchange (BWE). For the North Sea region, the OSPAR Commission has appointed BWE areas where ships with such temporary exceptions can perform BWE. A dedicated, regional approach was necessary because, according to regulation B-4 of the BWC, BWE can only take place at a minimum of 200 nautical miles from the nearest land and in at least 200 metres water depth. Since these circumstances are absent on the North Sea, a special temporary measure was designed to enable BWE on the North Sea. The resulting BWE area for the North Sea is illustrated below.
When applying BWE and using this map, please note that:
OSPAR has applied two leading principles for temporarily allowing this BWE:
During IMO MEPC 71 from 3-7 July 2017, a proposal will be discussed to possibly postpone the requirements for using BWTS for existing ships for a longer period than five years.
During both events, MEA-nl stressed the importance of the five year experience building phase. The real test of the efficacy of any BWTS will be on-board of ships. Such efficacy tests - based on IMO’s G2 Guidelines for Ballast Water Sampling - can be pragmatic and take place at relatively low costs. Results of such tests will be essential for on-going BWTS improvements.
Amongst all the uncertainties surrounding BWC implementation, there is a light at the end of the tunnel. During MEA-nl’s ten year experience of testing BWTS, we found that the majority of the systems performed 10 to 100 times better than the D-2 standard of the Ballast Water Convention. This illustrates that generally, the technical performance of treatment systems is high and sufficient.
An additional plea from MEA-nl during both events was to allow the shipping industry some flexibility and time for implementation. And, last but not least, it was stressed that experience building can only work in a ‘safe’ environment. On-board monitoring must take place with a guarantee that its results will not be used for enforcement purposes. MEA-nl hopes to contribute significantly to this monitoring, experience building and… eventually, a successful implementation of the Convention.
MEA-nl will join the technical committee of the Clean Shipping Index (CSI), as was decided in the first week of November of 2016. The CSI is one of the worlds’ leading index systems for sustainable and environmentally sound shipping. The CSI enables cargo owners and producers of goods to choose the ‘greenest carrier’ for their products. An impressive and growing list of cargo and ship owners have joined the CSI the last decade. CSI regards MEA-nl’s long-standing experience in testing ballast water management systems as very valuable for further development of CSI’s standards in the field of preventing the spread of invasive species. The entry into force of the Ballast Water Convention and the growing concern about bio fouling are moving maritime policy further. This triggers the need within CSI to redefine shipping operations that stretches further than existing regulations: designation of so called ‘above compliance behaviour’. Around 30 major cargo-owners have already joined the index and make use of the CSI database on a regular basis to choose the most sustainable and clean carrier for their products. CSI’s technical committee has members across the maritime industry, who can contribute to develop new parameters and inform the CSI network on the latest policy and technological developments. MEA-nl is very pleased that it will be joining forces with the CSI to stimulate the forerunners in sustainable shipping.
For more information about CSI please visit www.cleanshippingindex.com